This is a standard architecture pattern of a software application. Data is processed step by step. Each step of data processing (data is cleaned, supplemented, transformed, etc.) is called filter, and the data is transported from processing step to processing step via pipes.
It is characteristic that only one (1) input channel exists for each processing step. This distinguishes Pipes and Filters from an architecture pattern such as Tea-and-Join Pipeline, where multiple input channels are allowed; this allows data to be processed in dependence on the data of a second/third/nth data stream.